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ArgumentsEdit

  1. Premarin, the hormone replacement treatment made from pregnant mares urine increases the risk of blood clots, stroke, high blood pressure and heart disease
  2. Vegetarians have lower cholesterol levels
  3. Vegetarians have lower blood pressure

ObjectionsEdit

Nil

References for the ArgumentsEdit

  1. http://www.pcrm.org/magazine/GM02Autumn/GM02Autumn08.html http://www.pcrm.org/health/prevmed/menopause.html Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, et al. Type of postmenopausal hormone use and risk of breast cancer: 12-year follow-up from the Nurses’ Health Study. Cancer Causes and Control 1992;3:433-9. Yang CP, Daling JR, Band PR, Gallagher RP, White E, Weiss NS. Noncontraceptive hormone use and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Causes and Control 1992;3:475-9 Bergkvist L, Adami HO, Persson I, Hoover R, Schairer C. The risk of breast cancer after estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement. N Engl J Med 1989;321:293-7.
  2. Refs needed
  3. Refs needed


References for the ObjectionsEdit

Examples and AnecdotesEdit

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Ref One. Roger R. Williams. "Diet, Genes, Early Heart Attacks, and High Blood Pressure," in Nutrition in the 90's: Current Controversies and Analysis, ed. Frank N. Kotsonis and Maureen A. Mackey (New York: Marcel Drekker, Inc., 1994), 25-44.


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Ref Two. Ibid.

Ref Three. Hans Diehl, "Reversing Coronary Heart Disease," in Western Diseases: Their Dietry Prevention and Reversibility, ed. N.J. Temple and D.P. Burkitt (Totawa, N.J.: Humana Press, 1994), 237-316.


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Ref Four. Ibid.

Ref Five. Jay N. Cohn and William B. Kannal, "Cardiovascular Medicine," in Preventitive Cardiology, ed. James T. Willerson and Jay N. Cohn (New York: Churchill Livingstone, Inc., 1995). 1809-1827.

Ref Six. Diehl, "Reversing Coronary Heart Disease."

Ref Seven. Peter Sleight, "Cardiovascular Risk Factors and the Effects of Intervention," American Heart Journal 121, no. 3 (1991): 990-995.

Ref Eight. Hans U. Kloer, "Diet and Coronary Heart Disease," Archives of Internal Medicine 65 (1989): S13-S21.

Ref Nine. Diehl, "Reversing Coronary Heart Disease."

Ref Ten. Doralie L. Segal, "The Rationale for Controlling Dietry Lipids in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease," Bulletin of PAHO 24 no. 2(1990): 197-209.

Ref Eleven. John C. LaRosa, "AHA Medical/Scientific Statement Special Report: The Cholesterol Facts: A Summary of the Evidence Relating to Dietry Fats, Serum Cholesterol, and Coronary Heart Disease," Circulation 81, no 5(1990): 1721-1733.

Ref Twelve. Cohn and Kannal, "Cardiovascular Medicine."

Ref Thirteen. Scott M. Grundy, "Cholesterol," in Cardiovascular Medicine, ed. James T. Willerson and Jay N. Cohn (New York: Churchill Livingstone, Inc., 1995), 1846-1865.


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Ref Fourteen. Diehl, "Reversing Coronary Heart Disease."

Ref Fifteen. H. Kasteloot, "Dietary Fat and Health: The Epidemiological Evidence," Acta Cardiologica 44, no. 6(1989): 446-448.

Ref Sixteen. Kasteloot, "Dietry Fat".

Ref Seventeen. Diehl, "Reversing Coronary Heart Disease."

Ref Eighteen. Dean Ornish, Dr Dean Ornish's Program for Reversing Heart Disease (New York: Ivy Books, 1990, 1996), 260.

Ref Nineteen. Department of Human Services: Department of Agriculture, The Relationship Between Dietary Cholesterol and Blood Cholesterol and Human Health and Nutrition, a report to the Congress persuant to the Food Security Act of 1985 P.L. 99-198, Subtitle B, Section 1453. (Washington, D.C., 1987).

Ref Twenty. Ibid


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Ref Twenty-one. Herman A. Tyroler, "Nutrition and Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology," in Nutrition and Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology," in Nutrition and Biotechnology in Heart Disease and Cancer, ed. John B. Longenecker, David Kritchevsky, and Marc K. Drezner (New York: Plenum Press, 1995), 7-19; H. Kesteloot, "Nutrition and Health: The Conclusions of the B.I.R.N.H. Study," Acta Cardiologica 44 no. 2(1989): 183-194; Segal, "Controlling Dietry Lipids;" Sleight, "Cardiovascular Risk Factors."

Ref Twenty-two. Department of Health and Human Services; Department of Agriculture, The Relationship Between Dietry Cholesterol and Blood Cholesterol.

Ref Twenty-three. Ibid.

Ref Twenty-four. Alberto Ascherio and Walter Willet, "New Directions in Dietry Studies in Coronary Heart Disease," Journal of Nutrition (1995) 125:647S-655S; Walter Willet and Frank M. Sacks, "Chewing the Fat," New England and Journal of Medicine 423: 121-123.


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Ref Twenty-five. Department of Health and Human Services; Department of Agriculture, The Relationship Between Dietary Cholesterol and Blood Cholesterol.

Ref Twenty-six. Kasteloot, "Dietary Fat."


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Ref Twenty-seven. W.F. Enos, R.H. Holmes and J. Beyer, "Coronary Disease Among United States Soldiers Killed in Action in Korea," Journal of the American Medical Association 152 (1953): 1090-1993.

Ref Twenty-eight. J. Judson McNamara et Al., "Coronary Artery Disease in Combat Casualties in Vietnam," Journal of the American Medical Association 216, no. 7(1971): 1185-1187.

Ref Twenty-nine. Elizabeth J. Lipp, Donna Deane, and Nancy Trimble, "Cardiovascular Disease Risks in Adolescent Males," Applied Nursing Research 9, no. 3(August 1996): 102-107.


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Ref Thirty. Scott M. Grundy, "Lipids and Cardiovascular Disease," Evaluation of Public Available Scientific Evidence Regarding Certain Nutrient-Disease Relationships. Centre for Food Safety nad Applied Nutrition; Food and Drug Administration; Department of Health and Human Services Under FDA Contract No. 223-88-3124; Task Order 9. Washington, D.C.


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Ref Thirty-one. K. Lance Gould et al., "Changes in Myocardial Perfusion Abnormalities by Positron Emission Tomography After Long-term, Intense Risk Factor Modification," Journal of the American Medical Association 274, no. 11(1995): 894-901.


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