1. Fish Oil degrades rapidly which releases free radicals, which have negative health impacts (including cancer, tissue damage, etc)
  2. Antibiotics and other chemicals which are carcinogenic to humans are fed to animals and then passed on in their fat



References for the ArgumentsEdit

References for the ObjectionsEdit

Examples and AnecdotesEdit

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Ref One. R. Doll and R. Peto, "The Causes of Cancer: Quantitative Estimates and Avoidable Risks of Cancer in the United States Today," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 66 (1981): 1191-1208

Ref Two. Walter C. Willet, "Who is Susceptible to Cancers of the Breast, Colon and Prostate?" Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 768 (Sep. 30, 1995): 1-11

Ref Three. Doll and Peto, "Causes of Cancer."


Ref Four. Walter C. Willet, "Diet and Health: What Should We Eat?" Science 264, (April 22, 1994): 532-537.

Ref Five. Willet, "Who is Susceptible?"


Ref Six. Kurt Kleiner, "Vitamin Pill Fails to Fend Off Cnacer," New Scientist, no. 2014 (Jan 27, 1996): 4.

Ref Seven. Ibid.

Ref Eight. Cheryl L. Rock et al., "Update on the Biological Characteristics of the Antioxidant Micronutrients: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and the Carotenoids," Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96 (July 1996): 693-702.


Ref Nine. Ibid.

Ref Ten. Mark Messina and Virginia Messina, The Dietician's Guide to Vegetarian Diets (Port Townshend, Wash.: Aspen Publishers, 1996), 39.

Ref Eleven. R. L. Phillips and D. A. Snowdon, "Association of Meat and Coffee use with Cancers of the Large Bowel, Breast and Prostate Among Seventh Day Adventists: Preliminary Results," Cancer Research 43 (1983): 2403S-2408S.

Ref Twelve. Ibid.


Ref Thirteen. M. Lipkin et al., "Seventh Day Adventist Vegetarians have a Quiescent Proliferation Activity in Colonic Mucosa," Cancer Letter 26 (1985): 139-144.

Ref Fourteen. B.S. Reddy and E.L. Wynder, "Large Bowel Carcinogenisis: Fecal Constituents of Populations with Diverse Incidence Rates of Colonic Cancer," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 50 (1973): 1437-1442; J.T. Korpela, "Fecal Free and Conjugated Bile Acids and Neutral Sterols in Vegetarians, Omnivores, and Patients with Colorectal Cancer," Scandanavian Journal of Gastroenterology 23 (1988): 277-283; A. van Fassen, "Bile Acids, Neutral Steroids, and Bacteria in Feces as Affected by a Mixed, a Lacto-Ovovegetarian, and a Vegan Diet," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 46 (1987): 962-967.

Ref Fifteen. J.R. Thornton, "High Colonic pH Promotes Colorectal Cancer," Lancet, no. 8229 (1981): 1081-1082.

Ref Sixteen. G. J. Davies. "Bowel Function Measurements of Individuals with Different Eating Patterns," Gut, 27 (1986): 164-169.

Ref Seventeen. G.A. Glober, "Bowel Transit Times and Stool Weight in Populations with Different Colon Cancer Risks," Lancet (1977): 110-111.

Ref Eighteen. American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts and Figures (1984).

Ref Nineteen. Antonio Trichopolou, "Consumption of Olive Oil and Specific Food Groups in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk in Greece," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87 (1995): 110-116.

Ref Twenty. A. Ronco et al., "Meat, Fat and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study from Uruguay," International Journal of Cancer 65 (jan. 26, 1996): 328-331.

Ref Twenty-one. Patricia M. Madigan et al., "Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk and Intake of Vegetables, Fruits and Related Nutrients," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88 (1996): 340-348.


Ref Twenty-two. Ibid.


Ref Twenty-three. Keiji Wakabayashi, "Food-Derived Mutagens and Carcinogens," Cancer Research 52 (April 1, 1992): 2092s-2098s.

Ref Twenty-four. H.P. Thiebaud, "Airborne Mutagens Produced by Frying Beef, Pork and Soy-Based Food," Food Chemical Toxicology 33 (1995): 821-828.

Ref Twenty-five. Ibid.

Ref Twenty-six. B. Stavric, "Evaluation of Hamburger and Hot Dogs for the Presence of Mutagens," Food Chemical Toxicology 33 (1995): 8:15-828.


Ref Twenty-seven. M. Thorogood et al., "Risk of Death from Cancer and Ischaemic Heart Disease in Meat and Non-Meat Eaters," British Medical Journal 308 (1994) 1667-1671.

Ref Twenty-eight. L. J. Kinlen et al., "A Proportionate Study of Cancer Among Member of a Vegetarian Society," British Journal of Cancer 48, (1983): 355-361.

Ref Twenty-nine. J. Chang-Claude and R. Frentzel-Beyme, "Dietary Lifestyle Determinants of Mortality Among German Vegetarians," International Journal of Epidemiology 22 (19930: 228-236.

Ref Thirty. T. Hirayama, "Mortality in Japanese with Life-Styles Similar to Seventh Day Adventists: Strategy for Risk Reduction by Life-Style Modification," National Cancer Institute Monograph 69 (1985): 143-153.

Ref Thirty-one. H. Haling and J. Carstensen, "Cancer Incidence Among a Group of Swedish Vegetarians," Cancer Detection and Prevention 7 (1984): abstract.

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Ref Thirty-two. Marion Nestle et al., "Guidelines on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Prevention: Reducing the Risk of Cancer with Healthy Food Choices and Physical Activity," CA-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 46, no. 6 (Nov./Dec. 1996): 325-341.

Ref Thirty-three. Ibid.

Ref Thirty-four. Personal communication, November 19, 1996.

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