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The Case for a Vegan World

Brain and Central Nervous System

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ArgumentsEdit

  1. Diets High in Cholesterol, Saturated Fat and Total Calories and Low in Fiber, Vegetables and Fruit increase the risk of Alzheimer's Disease
  2. All animal foods are included among the high risk foods for triggering a migraine. Of the plant foods, only citrus, nuts, peanuts, bananas, tomatoes, onions, corn and apples are included in the high risk category and many plant foods can help to treat migraines (ginger and feverfew especially)
  3. Bovine Spongyform Encephalopathy and other diseases can be spread to humans throught the ingestion of brain tissue.
  4. Vegetarians are smarter than non-vegetarians (!)
  5. Citrulline, found in plant foods such as watermelon, may decrease the development of Parkinson's disease

ObjectionsEdit

Nil

References for the ArgumentsEdit

  1. http://www.pcrm.org/health/prevmed/diet_alzheimers.html Luchsinger JA, Tang M, Shea S, Mayeux R. Caloric intake and the risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2002;59:1258-1263.Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL et al. Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:194-200. Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Andres P et al. Dietary intake and cognitive function in a group of elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:803-809. Simons M, Keller P, Dichgans J, Schulz JB. Cholesterol and Alzheimer’s disease. Is there a link? Neurology 2001;57:1089-1093. Mizuno T, Nakata M, Naiki H et al. Cholesterol-dependent generation of a seeding amyloid B-protein in cell culture. J Biol Chem 1999;274:15110-15114 Misonou H, Morishima-Kawashima M, Ihara Y. Oxidative stress induces intracellular accumulation of amyloid B-protein (AB) in human neuroblastoma Cells. Biochemistry 2000;39:6951-6959. Lethem R and Orrell M. Antioxidants and Dementia. Lancet 1997;349:1189-1190. Rockwood K, Kirkland S, Hogan DB et al. Use of lipid-lowering agents; indication Giem P, Beeson WL, Fraser GE. The incidence of dementia and intake of animal products: preliminary findings from the adventist health study. Neuroepidemiology 1993;12:28-36.
  2. http://www.pcrm.org/health/prevmed/migraine.html Egger J, Carter CM, Wilson J, Turner MW. Is migraine a food allergy? A double-blind controlled trial of oligoantigenic diet treatment. Lancet 1983;2:865-9. Millichap JG, Yee MM. The diet factor in pediatric and adolescent migraine. Pediatr Neurol. 2003 Jan;28(1):9-15. Ernst E, Pittler MH. The efficacy and safety of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): an update of a systematic review. Public Health Nutr. 2000 Dec;3(4A):509-14. Johnson ES, Kadam NP, Hylands DM, Hylands PJ. Efficacy of feverfew as prophylactic treatment of migraine. Br Med J 1985;291:569-73. Murphy JJ, Heptinstall S, Mitchell JRA. Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of feverfew in migraine prevention. Lancet 1988;2:189-92. Thys-Jacobs S. Vitamin D and calcium in menstrual migraine. Headache 1994;34:544-6.Thys-Jacobs S. Alleviation of migraines with therapeutic vitamin D and calcium. Headache 1994;34:590-2.
  3. http://www.pcrm.org/health/prevmed/mad_cow_disease.html http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/bsefaq.html Gibbons RV, Holman RC, Belay ED, Schonberger LB. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the United States: 1979-1998. JAMA. 2000 Nov 8;284(18):2322-3. Walker KD, Hueston WD, Hurd HS, Wilesmith JW. Comparison of bovine spongiform encephalopathy risk factors in the United States and Great Britain. JAVMA 1991;199:1554-61. Marsh RF. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: a new disease of cattle? Arch Virol 1993;7(Suppl):255-9. Prusiner SB. The prion diseases. Scientific American, Jan 1995, pp. 48-57. Bleem AM, Crom RL, Francy B, Hueston WD, Kopral C, Walker K. Risk factors and surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the United States. JAVMA 1994;204:644-51. Collee JG. A dreadful challenge. Lancet 1996;347:917-8. Steelman VM. Creutzfeld-Jakob disease: recommendations for infection control. Am J Infect Control 1994;22:312-8. Bleem AM, Crom RL, Francy B, Hueston WD, Kopral C, Walker K. Risk factors and surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the United States. JAVMA 1994;204:644-51. Miller LD, Davis AJ, Jenny AL. Surveillance for lesions of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in US cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 1992;4:338-9. Robinson MM, Hadlow WJ, Huff TP, et al. Experimental infection of mink with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. J Gen Virol 1994;75:2151-5. Marsh RF, Bessen RA. Epidemiologic and experimental studies on transmissible mink encephalopathy. Dev Biol Stand 1993;80:111-8. http://www.usda.gov/news/releases/2003/05/bg0166.htm Foster PR. Prions and blood products. Ann Med 2000;32:501-13.
  4. Refs needed here: IQ studies from Vegan communities, historical list of talented Vegans, comparitive IQ studies of Vegos and non Vegos.
  5. http://www.pcrm.org/health/prevmed/parkinsons.html


References for the ObjectionsEdit

Examples and AnecdotesEdit

Vegancover Veganp65 Veganp66 Veganp67 Veganp68


Ref One. Alan McGregor, "WHO Coordinates Responses to New CJD Variant," The Lancet 347 (1996): 1036.

Ref Two. BBC Horizon (television program), Sunday and Monday, Nov. 18, 1996.


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Ref Three. Paul Brown, et al., "Resistance of Scrapie Infectivity to Steam Autoclaving after Formaldehyde Fixation and Limited Survival After Ashing at 360C," Journal of Infectious Diseases 161 (1990): 467-472; S.F. Dealler and R. Lacey, "Transmissable Spongiform Encephalopathies," Food Microbiology 7 (1990): 253-279; T.A. Holt and J. Phillips, "Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy," British Medical Journal 296 (1988): 1581-1582.

Ref Four. J. Gerald Collee, "A Dreadful Challenge," The Lancet 347 (1996): 917-918.


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Ref Five. BBC Horizon.

Ref Six. Richard W. Lacey, Mad Cow Disease: The History of BSE in Britain (Jersey Channel Islands: Cypsela Publications Limited, 1994).

Ref Seven. Mark Cardwell, "Mad Cows and Wild Proteins," Discover (April 1991): 69-74; Daniel Pearl, "Beef Disaster in U.K. Raises Oversight Issues," Wall Street Journal (March 22, 1996).


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Ref Eight. BBC Horizon.

Ref Nine. Lacey, Mad Cow Disease.

Ref Ten. Ibid

Ref Eleven. Jeremy Cherfas, "Mad Cow Disease," Science 249 (1990): 1492-1493.


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Ref Twelve. J.K. Kirkwood and A.A. Cunningham, "Epidemiological Observations on Spongyform Encephalopathies in Captive Wild Animals in the British Isles," Veterinary Record (September 24, 1994): 296-304; "Mad Cows and Englishmen," Economist (March 30, 1996).

Ref Thirteen. "Dangerous Food," Oprah Winfrey Show, Harpo Productions, April 16, 1996, (Livingston, N.J.: Burrelle's Information Services).

Ref Fourteen. BBC Horizon.


Veganp74


Ref Fifteen. Paul Brown, "Beef Crisis," Guardian (March 26, 1996): 7; Luisa Dillner, "BSE Linked to New Variant of CJD in Humans," British Journal of Medicine, (March 30, 1996); Victorita MacDonald, "CJD Study Casts Doubt on Link to Mad Cow Disease," Sunday Telegraph (March 31, 1996): 1.

Ref Sixteen. John Collinge and Martin Rosser, "A New Variant of Prion Disease," The Lancet 347 (1996): 916-7; The Link is Unproved, But No Better Explanation Presently Forthcoming," British Medical Journal (March 30, 1996); "Ten Deaths That May Tell a Shocking Tale," New Scientist (March 30, 1996).

Ref Seventeen. BBC Horizon.


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Ref Eighteen. C. Arthur and L. Hunt., "Scientists Split Over Dangers of Beef-Eating," Independent (March 21, 1996): 2.


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Ref Nineteen. BBC Horizon.


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Ref Twenty. William D. Hueston, Anita M. Bleem, and Kevin D. Walker, "Bovine Spongyform Encephalopathy," Animal Health Insight Flall 1992: 1-7; R.F. Marsh and R.A. Bessen, "Epidemiologic Studies on Transmissable Mink Encephalopathy," Developments in Biological Standardization 80 (1993): 111-118; Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, "Quantitative Risk Assessment of BSE in the United States" (Fort Collins: Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, 1991).

Ref Twenty-one. Ibid.


Veganp79


Ref Twenty-two. "Apocalypse Cow; U.S. Denials Deepen Mad Cow Danger," PR Watch 3.1 (1996): 1-8.

Ref Twenty-three. Tara Gruzen, "U.S. Never Banned Suspect Feed," Chicago Tribune, (March 28, 1996): 19.

Ref Twenty-four. National Cattlemen's Association. "Questions and Answers About Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)," Fact Sheet (November 1996).

Ref Twenty-five. Ibid.


Veganp80


Ref Twenty-six. Ibid.

Ref Twenty-seven. "BSE/Scrapie Group Share Research, Debate Feed Bans," Food Chemical News (June 3, 1996).

Ref Twenty-eight. "Mad Cow Disease Must Be Found in U.S. Cows in Low Levels," Food Chemical News (June 3, 1996).


Veganp81


Ref Twenty-nine. D. J. Maddleton and R.M. barlow, "Failure to Transmit Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy to Mice by Feeding Them with Extraneural Tissues of Affected Cattle," Veterinary Record (May 29, 1993): 545-547.

Ref Thirty. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, "Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Implications for the United States" (Fort Collins: Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health, 1993); M. E. Esminger. Beef Cattle Science (Insterstate Printers and Publishers, 1987; Associated Press, "U.S. Inspectors to Increase Testing fot 'Mad Cow' Disease" (March 26, 1996).

Ref Thirty-one. "Hearing before the Subcommittee on Livestock of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, One Hundred Thrid Congress, Second Session on HR 559," September 28, 1994. (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Offic, 1995).


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Ref Thirty-two. D. J. Middleton, and R.M. Barlow, "Failure to Transmit Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy."

Ref Thirty-three. Tam Garland, Nathan Bauer, and Murl Bailey, Jr. "Brain Emboli in the Lungs of Cattle After Stunning," The Lancet 348 (August 31, 1996): 610.


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Ref Thirty-four. Joel Bleifuss, "Killer Beef", In These Times (May 31, 1993): 12-15.

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